Step 3 Make your writing flow like water

In this step we’re going to show you 5 writing techniques that will help make your writing flow logically and smoothly.

These writing techniques are based on insights from linguist Margaret Cargill and Patrick O’Connor, in their book titled Writing Scientific Research Articles: Strategy and Steps.

As explained in their book, Drs Cargill and O’Connor state that English is a good choice for research writing because in English it is the responsibility of the Author to ensure that the Reader understands what is written. That’s because English is a low-context language. This means that the context of what is being written (or said, for that matter) is not used much to interpret the meaning of the written (or spoken) word. This means that every little component of every little sentence in English needs to be explicitly explained, with little or no assumption that the context will make certain things clear.

This is not the same for all languages. For example, Japanese and Turkish are high-context languages. The context of what’s being written (or said) is used in addition to the written (or spoken) words to understand their meaning. In high-context languages, explicitly explaining every little component of every little sentence could be perceived as insulting to the reader’s (or listener’s) intelligence.

In addition to outlining these 5 writing techniques for low-context English writing that flows like water, in this Step we’re going to cover common English grammar mistakes made by writers of research papers, with simple exercises to help you avoid them.

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